Laser fundamentals and applications

  • Course level: Beginner


Laser fundamentals and applications. A Laser is a device that emits light within a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. Because of its extremely high degree of monochromaticity, coherence, directionality, polarization, and power, etc.,

laser radiation or light has been widely used in high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging, chemistry, optical communications, biomedicine, defense industries, etc.

This course is intended for students who need to understand the basic principles of how lasers work and their main properties. This course provides the scholars a thoroughgoing knowledge of the fundamentals of lasers: their unique properties, their operations, and their applications.

It will equip the students with information on how a coherent light is generated and amplified, the techniques after different lasers design, and applications of laser in spectroscopy, chemistry, medicine, biology, military, and other areas.


Laser fundamentals and applications  INTENDED AUDIENCE: Senior UG and PG students

What Will I Learn?

  • Week 1: Introduction; Importance: why laser?, unique properties of lasers; Brief history of laser development ; Laser basics
  • Week 2: Concept of stimulated emission; Einstein’s coefficients; Population inversion; Amplification of stimulated emission; Laser instrumentation fundamentals: Cavity, resonator and pumping processes; Gain medium
  • Week 3: Coherent radiation, standing waves and modes; The kinetics of laser emission; Rate equations; Threshold conditions; Pulsed and continuous wave laser emission; Various pulsing techniques: cavity dumping, Q-switching and mode-locking
  • Week 4: Transitions, lifetimes and linewidths: Three level laser, Four-level laser, emission linewidth; Properties of laser light: monochromaticity, spatial and temporal coherence, intensity, beam-width Similarity transforms,
  • Week 5: Laser sources; different types of lasers; Laser instrumentation details
  • Week 6: Applications of lasers in spectroscopy, chemistry, biology, medical sciences and other fields
  • Week 7: Applications of lasers in spectroscopy, chemistry, biology, medical sciences and other fields
  • Week 8: Applications of lasers in spectroscopy, chemistry, biology, medical sciences and other fields Summary of the course

Topics for this course

41 Lessons

Laser : Fundamentals and Applications

Unique properties of LASERs and their applications00:00:00
LASER and its history00:00:00
Interaction of Light with matter00:00:00
Interaction of Light with matter00:00:00
Einsteins Concept of stimulated emission00:00:00
Calculation of Einsteins coefficient31:36
Population inversion, 2-level system and 3-level system00:00:00
3-level System and 4-level system00:00:00
Components of LASERs00:00:00
Modes of LASER cavity and standing waves00:00:00
Transverse Modes of LASER cavity00:00:00
Threshold Condition00:00:00
Properties of Laser: Directionality and Intensity00:00:00
Properties of Laser: Coherence and Monochromaticity00:00:00
Continuous and Pulsed Lasers00:00:00
Some Numerical problem00:00:00
Cavity Dumping00:00:00
Q-switching and Pockels effect00:00:00
Passive Q-switching, Mode-Locking00:00:00
Mode Locking00:00:00
Mode – locking00:00:00
Mode – locking (contd.)00:00:00
Passive Mode – locking and Types of LASERs00:00:00
Solid state LASERs00:00:00
Semiconductor LASERs and Gas LASERs00:00:00
Gas LASERs00:00:00
Chemical and Dye LASERs00:00:00
Introduction to Non Linear Optics00:00:00
Non Linear Optics00:00:00
2nd order Nonlinear optics00:00:00
Non-linear optical processes00:00:00
Aspects of SHG and Application of non-linear optics00:00:00
Application of LASER: LIDAR00:00:00
Application of Laser: Laser Spectroscopy00:00:00
Application of Laser: Enrichment of Isotope00:00:00
Laser Induced Chemistry00:00:00
Laser Induced Chemistry and Ultrafast chemical Dynamics00:00:00
Lasers in Medical Sciences00:00:00
Lasers in Material sciences and engineering and Optical Communications00:00:00
Laser safety and summary00:00:00
Laser Fundamentals and Applications

Enrolment validity: Lifetime